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Rising CO2 levels aren’t just dissolving coral reefs . They might be causing squid to act all kinds of weird.

That, at least, is the takeaway of a new laboratory experiment published in the journal Global Change Biology , which shows how elevated CO2 levels can affect the predatory behavior of two tentacled hunters, the pygmy squid and bigfin reef squid. While the experiment has some important caveats, it offers a reminder that the ecological fallout of changing ocean chemistry will be complex, and probably, weirder than we can imagine.

While many studies have documented the harmful effects of rising CO2 (and a corresponding uptick in ocean acidity) on corals and mollusks, far fewer have looked at how these changes affects animal behavior.

“Most [behavioral studies] have focused on fish, however more recently, the effects of elevated CO2 has been demonstrated on less active invertebrates such as snails,” lead study author Blake Spady from the ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies told Earther in an email. “This raised the question as to whether highly active invertebrates, such as squid, were similarly affected.”

So, Spady and his colleagues did what any good scientists would: they dumped a bunch of squid in aquaria, pumped the water full of CO2 to mimic future ocean conditions under high carbon emissions scenarios, gave the little squirts some live prey, and watched what happened.

Both types of squid were affected pretty dramatically.

Pygmy squid were about 20 percent less likely to attack prey in the high-CO2 treatments. Both pygmy and bigfin reef squid took longer to initiate their attacks when subjected to higher CO2 levels, and both “displayed more conspicuous body patterns during the attack,” according to Spady.

Nobody’s sure why these changes occurred, or whether they’ll persist long term (the experiments only lasted five and 28 days for the pygmy and bigfin reef squid, respectively). Spady noted that previous research in fish and mollusks has shown how elevated CO2 can affect certain neurotransmitters impacting behavior, adding that they plan to investigate this in squid in the future.

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Tough adhesives for diverse wet surfaces

These authors contributed equally to this work.

Present address: Department of Bioengineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, UK.

See all Hide authors and affiliations

28 Jul 2017: Vol. 357, Issue 6349, pp. 378-381 DOI: 10.1126/science.aah6362
J. Li
John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. Department of Mechanical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 0G4, Canada.
A. D. Celiz
Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. Advanced Materials and Healthcare Technologies Division, School of Pharmacy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK.
J. Yang
John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. Kavli Institute for Nanobio Science and Technology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.
Q. Yang
John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. Kavli Institute for Nanobio Science and Technology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. School of Aerospace, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, People’s Republic of China.
I. Wamala
Departments of Cardiac Surgery, Boston Children’s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
W. Whyte
John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. Advanced Materials and Bioengineering Research Centre, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland and Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
B. R. Seo
John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.
N. V. Vasilyev
Departments of Cardiac Surgery, Boston Children’s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
J. J. Vlassak
John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.
Z. Suo
John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. Kavli Institute for Nanobio Science and Technology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.
D. J. Mooney
John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.

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Sticky even when wet

Tissue adhesives are used as an alternative to stitches or staples and can be less damaging to the healthy tissues. But they can suffer from low biocompatibility and poor matching of the mechanical properties with the tissues. Li combined an adhesive surface with a flexible matrix to develop an adhesive that has the right level of stick but moves with the surrounding tissues. The adhesive is effective in the presence of blood and thus might work during wound repair.

, this issue p. 378

Abstract

Adhesion to wet and dynamic surfaces, including biological tissues, is important in many fields but has proven to be extremely challenging. Existing adhesives are cytotoxic, adhere weakly to tissues, or cannot be used in wet environments. We report a bioinspired design for adhesives consisting of two layers: an adhesive surface and a dissipative matrix. The former adheres to the substrate by electrostatic interactions, covalent bonds, and physical interpenetration. The latter amplifies energy dissipation through hysteresis. The two layers synergistically lead to higher adhesion energies on wet surfaces as compared with those of existing adhesives. Adhesion occurs within minutes, independent of blood exposure and compatible with in vivo dynamic movements. This family of adhesives may be useful in many areas of application, including tissue adhesives, wound dressings, and tissue repair.

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Science

Vol 357, Issue 634928 July 2017

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Tough adhesives for diverse wet surfaces

By J. Li , A. D. Celiz , J. Yang , Q. Yang , I. Wamala , W. Whyte , B. R. Seo , N. V. Vasilyev , J. J. Vlassak , Z. Suo , D. J. Mooney

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Mini TolkSpecifications

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